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  • Издательство: Edinburgh University Press Ltd.
  • Год: 2006
  • ISBN: 0-7486-1832-5
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Preface xix
Acknowledgements xxiii
Abbreviations, symbols and transcription xxv
Part I Overview of the Cognitive Linguistics Enterprise
Introduction
1 What does it mean to know a language?
1.1 What is language for?
1.1.1 The symbolic function of language
1.1.2 The interactive function of language
1.2 The systematic structure of language
1.2.1 Evidence for a system
1.2.2 The systematic structure of thought
1.3 What do linguists do?
1.3.1 What?
1.3.2 Why?
1.3.3 How?
1.3.4 Speaker intuitions
1.3.5 Converging evidence
1.4 What it means to know a language
1.5 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
2 The nature of cognitive linguistics: assumptions and
commitments
2.1 Two key commitments
2.1.1 The ЎҐGeneralisation CommitmentЎ¦
2.1.2 The ЎҐCognitive CommitmentЎ¦
2.2 The embodied mind
2.2.1 Embodied experience
2.2.2 Embodied cognition
2.2.3 Experiential realism
2.3 Cognitive semantics and cognitive approaches to grammar
2.4 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
3 Universals and variation in language, thought and
experience
3.1 Universals in thought and language
3.1.1 Typological universals
3.1.2 Universals in formal linguistics
3.1.3 Universals in cognitive linguistics
3.2 Cross-linguistic patterns in semantic systems
3.2.1 Patterns in the conceptualisation of space
3.2.2 Patterns in the conceptualisation of time
3.3 Cross-linguistic variation in semantic systems
3.3.1 Variation in the conceptualisation of space
3.3.2 Variation in the conceptualisation of time
3.4 Linguistic relativity and cognitive linguistics
3.4.1 Whorf and the Linguistic Relativity Principle
3.4.2 Language as a shaper of thought
3.4.3 The cognitive linguistics position
3.5 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
4 Language in use: knowledge of language, language change
and language acquisition
4.1 Language in use
4.1.1 A usage event
4.1.2 The relationship between usage and linguistic
structure
4.1.3 Comprehension and production
4.1.4 Context
COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS: AN INTRODUCTION
vi
4.1.5 Frequency
4.2 Cognitive Grammar
4.2.1 Abstraction, schematisation and language use
4.2.2 Schemas and their instantiations
4.2.3 Partial sanction
4.2.4 The non-reductive nature of schemas
4.2.5 Frequency in schema formation
4.3 A usage-based approach to language change
4.3.1 Historical linguistics and language change
4.3.2 The Utterance Selection Theory of language
change
4.3.3 The Generalised Theory of Selection and the
Theory of Utterance Selection
4.3.4 Causal mechanisms for language change
4.4 The usage-based approach to language acquisition
4.4.1 Empirical findings in language acquisition
4.4.2 The cognitive view: socio-cognitive mechanisms
in language acquisition
4.4.3 Comparing the generative view of language
acquisition
4.5 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Part II Cognitive Semantics
Introduction
5 What is cognitive semantics?
5.1 Guiding principles
5.1.1 Conceptual structure is embodied
5.1.2 Semantic structure is conceptual structure
5.1.3 Meaning representation is encyclopaedic
5.1.4 Meaning construction is conceptualisation
5.2 Phenomena investigated within cognitive semantics
5.2.1 The bodily basis of meaning
5.2.2 Conceptual structure
5.2.3 Encyclopaedic semantics
5.2.4 Mappings
5.2.5 Categorisation
5.2.6 Word meaning and polysemy
5.3 Methodology
5.4 Some comparisons with formal approaches to semantics
CONTENTS
vii
5.5 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
6 Embodiment and conceptual structure
6.1 Image schemas
6.1.1 What is an image schema?
6.1.2 Properties of image schemas
6.1.3 Image schemas and linguistic meaning
6.1.4 A provisional list of image schemas
6.1.5 Image schemas and abstract thought
6.2 Conceptual structure
6.2.1 Semantic structure
6.2.2 Schematic systems
6.3 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
7 The encyclopaedic view of meaning
7.1 Dictionaries versus encylopaedias
7.1.1 The dictionary view
7.1.2 Problems with the dictionary view
7.1.3 Word meaning versus sentence meaning
7.1.4 The encyclopaedic view
7.2 Frame semantics
7.2.1 What is a semantic frame?
7.2.2 Frames in cognitive psychology
7.2.3 The З¶ЗВЗАЗАЗёЗЕЗ¶ЗјЗґЗї ЗёЗЙЗёЗБЗЗ frame
7.2.4 Speech event frames
7.2.5 Consequences of adopting a frame-based model
7.3 The theory of domains
7.3.1 What is a domain?
7.3.2 Basic, image-schematic and abstract domains
7.3.3 Other characteristics of domains
7.3.4 Profile/base organisation
7.3.5 Active zones
7.4 The perceptual basis of knowledge representation
7.5 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS: AN INTRODUCTION
viii
8 Categorisation and idealised cognitive models
8.1 Categorisation and cognitive semantics
8.1.1 The classical theory
8.1.2 The definitional problem
8.1.3 The problem of conceptual fuzziness
8.1.4 The problem of prototypicality
8.1.5 Further problems
8.2 Prototype theory
8.2.1 Principles of categorisation
8.2.2 The categorisation system
8.2.3 The vertical dimension
8.2.4 The horizontal dimension
8.2.5 Problems with prototype theory
8.3 The theory of idealised cognitive models
8.3.1 Sources of typicality effects
8.3.2 Radial categories as a further source of typicality
effects
8.3.3 Addressing the problems with prototype theory
8.4 The structure of ICMs
8.5 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
9 Metaphor and metonymy
9.1 Literal versus figurative language
9.1.1 Literal and figurative language as complex concepts
9.1.2 Can the distinction be maintained?
9.2 What is metaphor?
9.3 Conceptual Metaphor Theory
9.3.1 The unidirectionality of metaphor
9.3.2 Motivation for target and source
9.3.3 Metaphorical entailments
9.3.4 Metaphor systems
9.3.5 Metaphors and image schemas
9.3.6 Invariance
9.3.7 The conceptual nature of metaphor
9.3.8 Hiding and highlighting
9.4 Primary Metaphor Theory
9.4.1 Primary and compound metaphors
9.4.2 Experiential correlation
9.4.3 Motivating primary metaphors
9.4.4 Distinguishing primary and compound metaphors
CONTENTS
ix
9.5 What is metonymy?
9.6 Conceptual metonymy
9.6.1 Metonymy as an access mechanism
9.6.2 Metonymy-producing relationships
9.6.3 Vehicles for metonymy
9.7 Metaphor-metonymy interaction
9.8 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
10 Word meaning and radial categories
10.1 Polysemy as a conceptual phenomenon
10.2 Words as radial categories
10.3 The full-specification approach
10.3.1 Image schema transformations
10.3.2 Metaphorical extensions
10.4 Problems with the full-specification approach
10.5 The Principled Polysemy approach
10.5.1 Distinguishing between senses
10.5.2 Establishing the prototypical sense
10.5.3 Illustration of a radial category based on Principled
Polysemy
10.5.4 Beyond prepositions
10.6 The importance of context for polysemy
10.6.1 Usage context: subsenses
10.6.2 Sentential context: facets
10.6.3 Knowledge context: ways of seeing
10.7 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
11 Meaning construction and mental spaces
11.1 Sentence meaning in formal semantics
11.2 Meaning construction in cognitive semantics
11.3 Towards a cognitive theory of meaning construction
11.4 The architecture of mental space construction
11.4.1 Space builders
11.4.2 Elements
11.4.3 Properties and relations
11.4.4 Mental space lattices
11.4.5 Counterparts and connectors
11.4.6 The Access Principle
COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS: AN INTRODUCTION
x
11.4.7 Roles and values
11.5 An illustration of mental space construction
11.6 The dynamic nature of meaning construction
11.6.1 Tense and aspect in English
11.6.2 The tense-aspect system in Mental Spaces Theory
11.6.3 Epistemic distance
11.7 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
12 Conceptual blending
12.1 The origins of Blending Theory
12.2 Towards a theory of conceptual integration
12.3 The nature of blending
12.3.1 The elements of conceptual blending
12.3.2 Further linguistic examples
12.3.3 Non-linguistic examples
12.4 Vital relations and compressions
12.4.1 Vital relations
12.4.2 A taxonomy of vital relations and their
compressions
12.4.3 Disintegration and decompression
12.5 A taxonomy of integration networks
12.5.1 Simplex networks
12.5.2 Mirror networks
12.5.3 Single-scope networks
12.5.4 Double-scope networks
12.6 Multiple blending
12.7 Constraining Blending Theory
12.8 Comparing Blending Theory with Conceptual Metaphor
Theory
12.8.1 Contrasts
12.8.2 When is a metaphor not a blend?
12.8.3 What Blending Theory adds to Conceptual
Metaphor Theory
12.9 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
13 Cognitive semantics in context
13.1 Truth-conditional semantics
13.1.1 Meaning, truth and reality
CONTENTS
xi
13.1.2 Object language versus metalanguage
13.1.3 The inconsistency of natural language
13.1.4 Sentences and propositions
13.1.5 Truth-conditional semantics and the generative
enterprise
13.1.6 Compositionality of meaning
13.1.7 Translating natural language into a
metalanguage
13.1.8 Semantic interpretation and matching
13.1.9 Comparison with cognitive semantics
13.2 Relevance Theory
13.2.1 Ostensive communication
13.2.2 Mutual cognitive environment
13.2.3 Relevance
13.2.4 Explicature and implicature
13.2.5 Metaphor
13.2.6 Comparison with cognitive semantics
13.3 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Part III Cognitive Approaches to Grammar
Introduction
14 What is a cognitive approach to grammar?
14.1 Guiding assumptions
14.1.1 The symbolic thesis
14.1.2 The usage-based thesis
14.1.3 The architecture of the model
14.2 Distinct cognitive approaches to grammar
14.2.1 The ЎҐConceptual Structuring System ModelЎ¦
14.2.2 Cognitive Grammar
14.2.3 Constructional approaches to grammar
14.2.4 Cognitive approaches to grammaticalisation
14.3 Grammatical terminology
14.3.1 Grammar
14.3.2 Units of grammar
14.3.3 Word classes
14.3.4 Syntax
14.3.5 Grammatical functions
14.3.6 Agreement and case
14.4 Characteristics of the cognitive approach to grammar
COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS: AN INTRODUCTION
xii
14.4.1 Grammatical knowledge: a structured inventory of
symbolic units
14.4.2 Features of the closed-class subsystem
14.4.3 Schemas and instances
14.4.4 Sanctioning and grammaticality
14.5 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
15 The conceptual basis of grammar
15.1 The grammatical subsystem: encoding semantic structure
15.2 TalmyЎ¦s ЎҐConceptual Structuring System ModelЎ¦
15.2.1 The configuration of ЗЖЗГЗґЗ¶Зё and ЗЗЗјЗАЗё
15.2.2 Conceptual alternativity
15.2.3 Schematic systems
15.2.4 The ЎҐConfigurational Structure SystemЎ¦
15.2.5 The ЎҐAttentional SystemЎ¦
15.2.6 The ЎҐPerspectival SystemЎ¦
15.2.7 The ЎҐForce-Dynamics SystemЎ¦
15.3 LangackerЎ¦s theory of Cognitive Grammar
15.3.1 The conceptual basis of word classes
15.3.2 Attention
15.3.3 Force-dynamics
15.4 Categorisation and polysemy in grammar: the network
conception
15.5 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
16 Cognitive Grammar: word classes
16.1 Word classes: linguistic categorisation
16.2 Nominal predications: nouns
16.2.1 Bounding
16.2.2 Homogeneity versus heterogeneity
16.2.3 Expansibility and contractibility versus replicability
16.2.4 Abstractions
16.3 Nominal versus relational predications
16.4 Temporal versus atemporal relations
16.4.1 Temporal relations: verbs
16.4.2 Atemporal relations
16.4.3 Class schemas
16.5 Nominal grounding predications
CONTENTS
xiii
16.5.1 Determiners and quantifiers
16.5.2 Grounding
16.6 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
17 Cognitive Grammar: constructions
17.1 Phrase structure
17.1.1 Valence
17.1.2 Correspondence
17.1.3 Profile determinacy
17.1.4 Conceptual autonomy versus conceptual
dependence
17.1.5 Constituency
17.1.6 The prototypical grammatical construction
17.2 Word structure
17.2.1 Phonological autonomy and dependence
17.2.2 Semantic autonomy and dependence
17.2.3 Prototypical stems and affixes
17.2.4 Composite structure
17.2.5 Constructional schemas
17.2.6 Grammatical morphemes and agreement
17.3 Clauses
17.3.1 Valence at the clause level
17.3.2 Grammatical functions and transitivity
17.3.3 Case
17.3.4 Marked coding: the passive construction
17.4 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
18 Cognitive Grammar: tense, aspect, mood and voice
18.1 English verbs: form and function
18.2 The clausal head
18.2.1 The passive construction: [be2 [ЗГЗёЗЕЗ№3 [V]]]
18.2.2 The progressive construction: [be1 [-ing [V]]]
18.2.3 The perfect construction: [have [ЗГЗёЗЕЗ№4 [V]]]
18.3 The grounding predication: mood and tense
18.3.1 Mood
18.3.2 Tense
18.3.3 The epistemic model
18.4 Situation aspect
COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS: AN INTRODUCTION
xiv
18.4.1 Situation types
18.4.2 Perfective and imperfective ЗГЗЕЗВЗ¶ЗёЗЖЗЖЗёЗЖ
18.4.3 Aspect and the count/mass distinction
18.5 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
19 Motivating a construction grammar
19.1 Constructions versus ЎҐwords and rulesЎ¦
19.2 Exploring idiomatic expressions
19.2.1 Typology of idiomatic expressions
19.2.2 Case study I: the let alone construction
19.2.3 Case study II: the whatЎ¦s X doing Y construction
19.3 Construction Grammar
19.3.1 The Construction Grammar model
19.3.2 Construction Grammar: a ЎҐbroadly generativeЎ¦
model
19.3.3 Comparing Construction Grammar with
Cognitive Grammar
19.4 The ЎҐGeneralisation CommitmentЎ¦
19.5 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
20 The architecture of construction grammars
20.1 GoldbergЎ¦s construction grammar
20.1.1 Assumptions
20.1.2 Advantages of a constructional approach to verb
argument structure
20.1.3 The relationship between verbs and
constructions
20.1.4 Relationships between constructions
20.1.5 Case studies
20.2 Radical Construction Grammar
20.2.1 Taxonomy of constructions
20.2.2 Emphasis on diversity
20.2.3 Five key features of RCG
20.3 Embodied Construction Grammar
20.3.1 Emphasis on language processing
20.3.2 Analysis and simulation
20.4 Comparing constructional approaches to grammar
20.5 Summary
CONTENTS
xv
Further reading
Exercises
21 Grammaticalisation
21.1 The nature of grammaticalisation
21.1.1 Form change
21.1.2 Meaning change
21.2 Metaphorical extension approaches
21.2.1 Case study: ЗВЗµЗЅЗёЗ¶ЗЗ-ЗЗЗВ-ЗЖЗГЗґЗ¶Зё
21.2.2 Case study: ЗЖЗГЗґЗ¶Зё-ЗЗЗВ-ЗГЗВЗЖЗЖЗёЗЖЗЖЗјЗВЗБ
21.3 Invited Inferencing Theory
21.3.1 Case study: the evolution of must
21.4 The subjectification approach
21.4.1 Case study: be going to
21.4.2 Case study: the evolution of auxiliaries from verbs
of motion or posture
21.5 Comparison of the three approaches: be going to
21.6 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
22 Cognitive approaches to grammar in context
22.1 Theories of grammar: assumptions, objectives,
methodology
22.1.1 Cognitive approaches to grammar
22.1.2 Generative approaches to grammar
22.1.3 Cognitive versus generative models
22.1.4 Functional-typological approaches to grammar
22.2 Core issues in grammar: comparing cognitive and
generative accounts
22.2.1 Word classes
22.2.2 Constituency: heads and dependents
22.2.3 The status of tree diagrams
22.2.4 Grammatical functions and case
22.2.5 The verb string: tense, aspect and mood
22.2.6 The passive construction
22.3 Summary
Further reading
Exercises
COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS: AN INTRODUCTION
xvi
Part IV Conclusion
23 Assessing the cognitive linguistics enterprise
23.1 Achievements
23.2 Remaining challenges
23.3 Summary
Appendix: Tables and Figures
References
Index

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Скриншот
A general introduction to the area of theoretical linguistics known as cognitive linguistics, this textbook provides up-to-date coverage of all areas of the field, including recent developments within cognitive semantics (such as Primary Metaphor Theory, Conceptual Blending Theory, and Principled Polysemy), and cognitive approaches to grammar (such as Radical Construction Grammar and Embodied Construction Grammar). The authors offer clear critical evaluations of competing formal approaches within theoretical linguistics. For example, cognitive linguistics is compared to Generative Grammar and Relevance Theory. In the selection of material and in the presentations the authors have aimed for a balanced perspective. Part II, Cognitive Semantics, and Part III, Cognitive Approaches to Grammar, have been created to be read independently. The authors have kept in mind that different instructors and readers will need to use the book in different ways tailored to their own goals. The coverage is suitable for a number of courses. While all topics are presented in terms accessible to both undergraduate and graduate students of linguistics, cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive science, and modern languages, this work is sufficiently comprehensive and detailed to serve as a reference work for scholars who wish to gain a better understanding of cognitive linguistics.



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